what is ostomy history

What is Ostomy Surgery?

Ostomy surgery is where an opening is made in the intestinal or urinary tract, so that it is easier to remove waste materials from the body.

During the surgery, a portion of the large or small intestine or Urinary Tract is brought to the skin surface and turned back on itself, like the cuff of a shirt. This creates an opening on the abdomen called stoma. The body then passes waste through the stoma, bypassing the diseased, or removed parts of the intestines. A pouch is worn directly on the body to collect the waste

In the US, more than half a million (500,000) people have had Ostomy surgery. Each year, there are more than 100,000 patients needing this procedure.

Why Ostomy Surgery?

The common causes of ostomy surgery are:

  • Cancer of the colon, bladder or rectum
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Hereditary conditions (eg familial adenomatous polyposis)
  • Birth defects
  • Stab or gunshot wounds

Types of Surgery:

Colostomy – Stoma made in the colon or large intestine.
Ileostomy – Stoma made in the ileum or small intestine.
Urostomy - A urinary diversion created to bypass a diseased or removed portion of the urinary tract.

What changes?

After surgery, you will notice a few changes to the way waste is removed from your body.

  • Loss of bowel or bladder control
  • Changed density and content of body waste

What is a stoma?

A stoma is a natural, or surgically created opening which exposes an inner portion of the body to the exterior. A stoma does not have nerve endings to transmit pain, so it doesn't hurt to touch it.

It is rich in blood vessels though, so it may bleed slightly if rubbed or irritated.
The location of the stoma depends on what kind of surgery you have.

History of Ostomy Surgery

1776
M Pillore, a french surgeon performed the very first successful colostomy.

1793
Another french surgeon, Duret, performed a colostomy on a baby born without an anus. The baby lived for 43 years with a stoma.

1921
Henri Albert Hartmann completes what is now one of the most commonly performed operations, known as the 'Hartmann's Procedure'.

1940
Ileostomy is realised with new technology and seen as an effective treatment for server ulcerative colitis and chrohns, requiring the removal of all - or part of - the colon.

1951
With the advancements in surgeries and post-op care, the stoma now becomes routine and a relatively low-risk procedure.